hinting at some of the problems which have been analysed and studied in relation to the self, in contemporary psychology. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. Essay about Personality Trait Personality Traits How would you score yourself on each of them? The entity usully is thought of s constituted by "estblishments nd processes" (Murry, 1938) tht re highly consistent in their opertions nd in their observble effects through time nd cross collections of prticulr situtions. A child is more concerned and involved about events and things ‘here and now’ compared to an adult. “The tendency of aggression is an innate, independent, instinctual disposition in man … it constitutes the most powerful obstacle to culture” – Sigmund Freud. Big Five Personality Traits Essay 1215 Words | 5 Pages. Another variation of this radius belongs to the time dimension. Needless to say, goal setting and even task performance are known to be influenced by the self Adjustive and coping behaviour of varied kinds are also influenced by the self There is considerable evidence from the clinical side for this. Apart from this, it is also seen that our behaviour is very often guided by both situational conditions and basic needs. Perhaps, one may describe it the other way also. Describe Your Personality. In recent years, psychologists who have been interested in dealing with personality problems and also concerned with bringing about changes in behaviour, values, motives and attitudes of others have found that many such changes become possible effectively only if an individual’s self-system is involved. Reference group or groups as described by Sherif and Sherif are categories of people to whom people relate themselves psychologically. In brief, self-esteem may be described as the degree to which a person likes himself and rates himself as capable, satisfactory, etc. But it may be seen that much of this controversy is not relevant to the interests of modern social psychologists. More recently, certain other theorists from the angle of personality research and clinical psychology, like Murray, have also used concepts like ‘actual self, ‘ideal self, ‘moral self and so on. Our concept of self is very much related to the environment. Final … Self-esteem assumes significance for understanding social behaviour in view of the fact that it has been shown to be an influential factor associated with different categories of social behaviour. The concept of self was also invoked to analyse and explain social behaviour. Contents Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..2 2. “Self-Understanding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 11”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/psychology/1678554-argumentative-essay. A. The other phase of depression shows the opposite features of self-deprecation, blaming oneself etc. This is my possibility, as I offer a very clear view of my individuality. were relegated to the background in favour of concepts like drives, reinforcement, etc. This Website is owned and operated by Studentshare Ltd (HE364715) , having its registered office at Aglantzias , 21, COMPLEX 21B, Floor 2, Flat/Office 1, Aglantzia , Cyprus. Carl Ransom Rogers was one of the leaders of humanistic psychology. Critical perspective of psychology is turning out to be, all the more most productive version of understanding human identity, self and personality. But, here again, standards of comparison are derived from cultural and social roots. 4. At several point in time every person looks towards himself in addition to assesses his or her personality. Click to create a comment or rate a document, An Understanding Of The Term Looking Glass Self, Personhood: Personality, Self, And Identity, Self-Understanding in Childhood and Adolescence, Carl Rogers Self-Actualization Personality Theory. A person who is feeling hungry does not eat anything and everything because he is hungry. The self, according to Mead, arises and develops as a result of social interaction. a. A Critical Assessment of N.T. It is agreed that the formation of the self is not a case of the development of a unitary structure. Investigations in the field of attribution behaviour, have pointed to the role of self-esteem in influencing ego defensive attribution behaviour as reported by Heider; Jones & Davis, Kelly and others. We have, in the above paragraphs, given the reader some idea of the controversy and divergence of views in studying and understanding the self. The self, is entirely a product of learning and experience. The interaction between the subjective self or the ‘I’ and the objective self invariably results in a continuous process of evaluation of the both. But, certainly his concept of self-regard was the forerunner of many later concepts and research. Further integration takes place and ultimately form the generalized ‘Me’ and the generalized ‘I’ emerges as an integrated concept of ‘self. The influence of the ‘self on behaviour operates both consciously and unconsciously and is much more noticeable where motivated and need satisfying interactions are involved, and also in situations where there is a choice. Apart from this, studies have also shown that the degree of ‘self-esteem’ is related to susceptibility to stress, rigidity, resistance to change, persuasion and different kinds of social behaviour. According self tests using the Five Factor Model, my personality has low extraversion and emotional stability, a high degree of openness, and moderate levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Self-formation and development go hand in hand with the general psychological development and growth, including physical growth. There are many different types of personality tests, with varying uses and reliability. Most aptly put! Some individuals are very proud of the ancient culture and heritage of the society than others whereas others are not. Describe your goals. The earlier trends in American societies was that individuals belonging to minority groups tended to be lower in self-esteem, but such trends have been shown to be disappearing as found by Lensing & Zagorun. Essay on Self-Assessment Disc Self-Assessment This Paper Provides an Assignment Privacy Policy3. These perceptions are known as “I” perceptions. Though some of the early psychologists like William James, Baldwin and also sociologists like Coolie and Mead took a very active interest in describing and analysing the term ‘self in terms of its development and functions, scientific psychology in its initial stages out of its obsession to imitate physics, chemistry and physiology shunned the use of the term ‘self particularly because of the phobia that it may lead psychology away from the objective method and result in subjective and speculative analysis. Allport, Sherif and Carter, Seigal and Seigel have reported that attitudes of a person tend to taper towards the attitudes of a group if that group also is a reference group. It was against this background that the concept of self made a re-entry into social psychology, though, perhaps, in a changed form and with a changed meaning. Meaning & Definition………………………………………………………………….2 3. If you find papers matching your topic, you may use them only as an example of work. The impact of such social interaction and reaction is very crucial to the development of self. Personalities differ among individuals as their environment, gender, ethnicity, education level and rearing all play an essential part to the development of their ability to resolve conflict. But even here some of the discussions, particularly in the Upanishadic texts looked at the self from a functional point of view. This phenomenon of the extension of one’s self-involvement and concern varies from person to person in its extensity and distance. Great personalities like Buddha, Christ, and Mother Theresa were concerned about events and issues concerning entire humanity and their self-radius was very high. According to this approach, motivation and goal direction of behaviour are entirely attributed to the ‘self as an internal entity in the individual life. Thus, most people in modem society are influenced by so called middle-class values, whether they actually belong there or not. Some individuals are more bothered about events, things and remote happenings of both past and future, while others have more concern with things in the immediate present. However, there is a flip side to this scenario as the variable would be the tense situation. Needless to say, long-term goal-setting is the most typical hallmark of social behaviour and the role of the self here is critical. Individual differences in importance or value attached to the various components of self-esteem are to a large extent traceable to reference groups. Here the term self means, an agency which is internal and which influences, mediates and moderates behaviour including social behaviour. Similarly, in modern societies, individuals occupying higher social positions have been found to show a higher degree of self-esteem by Himmelweit. Values have been shown to influence our personal behaviour, choice reactions, responses, etc. Some people are least disturbed or concerned about things and events which happen somewhere and do not have any immediate concern for them. himself as the subject. Closely related to the issue of ‘reference group’ or self-set is the ‘self- radius’. But, in all these discussions the concept of self was mostly employed in a metaphysical sense and in the context of understanding the essential nature of man and his relationship with the ‘cosmic self or the ‘ultimate self etc. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………..7 An important characteristic of ‘self-esteem’ is that it is motivating. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. It is evident that continuity, integration, consistency and identity are the most crucial characteristics of social behaviour. Different psychologists and sociologists have tended to look at the self in different ways. (These views employ concepts like self-consistency, self-congruence, self-ideal discrepancy, as primary motivat­ing factors in human behaviour, social behaviour). These are called “Me” perceptions. Some common models are the MMPI, the Jungian / Myers Briggs type analysis, and the Enneagram, as well as the DISC. Thus we see that esteem as a characteristic process associated with self ‘formulation’ and ‘functioning’ is of significant importance in analysing and understanding social behaviour. Estimated Word Count = 695 Such disclosure of oneself has been found to have greater impact on behaviour change, attitudes and values. Content Guidelines 2. Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! Personal Self Assessment Essay. Some writers would probably refer to the former as ‘subjective self and the latter as ‘objective self. The Big Five Personality Dimensions. Values are very close to our ‘selves’. Why do we need a concept of self? Personality and Self-Care Knowing my personality type helps me understand how I need to take care of myself. It has been shown in this context that one of the most significant factors in the development of the self is interaction with other children or peer groups, where all are equal. Certainly this depends on one’s experiences of success or failure. (“Self-understanding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 11”, n.d.), (Self-Understanding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 11). Such processes result in greater integration, consistency and continuity of behaviour. Similarly, many of us feel happy and also share the sense of achievement, when somebody in a far off place achieves something great like landing on the moon or conquering the Mount Everest. (c) A third view holds that the self itself is a force which motivates the organism and initiates action directed towards integration, actualization or expres­sion. Further, the behavioural processes, like perceiving, thinking and decision making form the foundations of social behaviour. Such a view probably is in agreement with the concept of self found in our own traditional Upanishads. While the role of self is more prominent in goal-directed activities, its role and influence extend to many other spheres of activity like perceiving, thinking, learning and other cognitive processes and of course in many complex activities like decision-making. At the same time, he also learns to look at himself through the eyes of others and other important persons whom Sullivan would describe as ‘significant adults’ i.e., the individual learns to look at himself as he believes others are looking at him. Development and Formation 6. In the course of a series of interactions with the others and also as he grows and also as the variety of interactions expand, the child learns to look at itself from two angles, one from his own angle, as he perceives himself, i.e. On the other hand, sometimes individuals with low self-esteem may actually engage in compensatory arrogant and aggressive behaviour which can be obnoxious and irritating, particularly in small group situations. It has fallen short in providing an adequate account of human motivation. The first set is what he calls the T perceptions and the second the ‘Me’ perceptions. Thus the psychological extent of one’s concern and sensitivity or involvement is known as ‘self-radius’. This is 100% legal. use the term self and ego synonymously. Tension-reduction interactions and habitual responses do not indicate much of a degree of involvement whereas unusual reactions or situations, complex situation or situations where one’s stakes are high tend to result in high degree of involvement. Among such writers was William James. 2 The components or attitudes involved are usually strong in affective terms or intensity and are fairly specific in direction, and relate to people and issues indicating most favourable or un-favourable relations. It is the self which gives an individuality to a person particularly in his social behaviour. In the words of Shoben, in any case self involved behaviour seems close to impossible to explain on the basis of a tension reduction model, and postulation of self-involvement seems necessary to account for the pursuit of long-term goals, so typical of human motivation’. TOS4. More recently, another term, ‘self-esteem’ has come into existence and has been studied extensively, particularly in relation to different forms of social behaviour. While many of these approaches which have employed the concept of the self in explaining social behaviour, have been traditional, descrip­tive, and analytical, more recent theories and approaches which are inclined towards empirical and experimental studies of social behaviour have also employed the concept of self but with different meanings. A number of studies have demonstrated the role of such comparisons in evaluating oneself. He also made reference to the self being influenced by what one feels about ‘others evaluation of oneself. It was only subsequently with the emergence and development of the social learning theories, particularly of the stimulus response (S-R) hue, that concepts like self, personality etc. Essay # 5. According to Rotter the term self has been employed in psychology with three different connotations: (a) A wholistic gestalt view which emphasises internal and subjective expe­riences including self-evaluation. Papers on such topics are very popular especially among the Literature courses so you won’t have problems with creating a good personality essay. More than this, in the light of the clinical evidence available and also evidence from experiments in social psychology, the social psychologist is interested in how failure to develop a proper ‘self can result in maladjusted behaviour and dysfunctional behaviour. Honesty, openness, integrity, etc., are examples of personal values which become integral parts of one’s self-system. Religious texts are full of discussions about the nature of ‘self and ‘soul’. In the common usge of psychologists, the term personlity hs trditionlly been tken to refer, in Murry's words, to "hypotheticl structure of the mind," the function of which involves integrting, orgnizing, nd controlling the multifrious spects of the individul's thought nd behvior. The former corresponds to what Freud would call the ‘latency period’ or what Sullivan would describe as the ‘juvenile era’. According to these writers, there is no need to make a distinction between the self and ego. The greater the self-radius, the more is the person’s concern and involvement with events and happenings further away. While other variables like attitudes may not be very close to the self-concept, our values very often become part of our self-system. Many of our social restraints are sustained because of the role played by the concept of ‘self. Thus in many instances attitude change or behaviour change becomes possible only if we can understand the reference groups or reference set of the individual. Some leading psychologists like Allport Snygg & Combs; Sheriff and Cantril. It develops first as a distinct sense of one’s body and its parts from its surroundings. When I think of myself, I think of crazy, loud, and downright honest. Phenomena like these necessitate a concept like ‘self, otherwise human behaviour can very often be a mess. It involves understanding individuals’ traits such as withdrawal and willpower and how various parts of an individual link together to form personality. In this view the ‘self is used as a structural unit consisting of many attitudes,’ perceptions and beliefs of an individual relating to himself. The typical example of such an approach is the classical psychoana­lytic view of behaviour as resulting from the dynamic interactions among the forces of the id, the ego and the superego. 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